By Jan Zielonka
This volume--the first in a chain of books on democratic consolidation in japanese Europe--examines the restrictions and possibilities of institutional engineering in japanese Europe. the purpose is to distinction a collection of democracy theories with empirical facts accrued in japanese Europe over the past ten years. heading off complicated debates approximately definitions, equipment, and the makes use of and misuses of comparative learn, this ebook as a substitute attempts to set up what has quite occurred within the zone and which of the prevailing theories have proved useful in explaining those advancements.
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Additional resources for Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe: Volume 1: Institutional Engineering (Oxford Studies in Democratization)
On the contrary, the histories of these countries suggest that, more often than not, it is the majority of citizens who need protection from political elites who consistently frustrate democratic demands in order to protect their interests. ’ See Julio Faundez, ‘Constitutionalism: A Timely Revival’, in Greenberg et al. ), Constitutionalism and Democracy, 358. 35 This subsequently led to the Czech–Slovak split, orchestrated by a small political elite in Bratislava and Prague, despite the fact that in 1991–2 a majority of the electorate opposed splitting Czechoslovakia.
Despite that, democracy now seems secure in Hungary, Poland, and probably also in Ukraine. In other words, if elites exercise self-restraint, adopting a constitution becomes less urgent. Nevertheless, in all three countries, an interim constitution proved indispensable. The 1989 constitutional amendments in Hungary amounted to a new interim constitution, as did Poland's 1992 51 Stephen Holmes, ‘Back to the Drawing Board’, East European Constitutional Review, 2/1 (Winter 1993), 21–5. Constitutions and Constitution-Building 37 ‘Little Constitution’, and Ukraine's 1994 ‘Law on Power’.
14 Powers in hiring and ﬁring ministers, dissolution of parliament, active and veto functions (decrees and ukazocracy) in legislation, and a substantial inﬂuence in amending the constitutions made presidents almost invulnerable to parliamentary activities. Certain byinstitutions, such as the security council, have been dubbed ‘the new politburo’, since they enjoy power without responsibility. Electoral Laws Transitions to democracy were frequently combined with a new electoral law. After the ﬁrst wave of democratization in this century, after 1918, the transition was accompanied by a transition to or a restoration of proportional electoral systems.
Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe: Volume 1: Institutional Engineering (Oxford Studies in Democratization) by Jan Zielonka