By Igor Aleksander, Henri Farreny, Malik Ghallab (auth.)
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The problem arises from the need to extract meaning (or, in technical words, do the semantic as opposed to the syntactic processing) from such statements, which in the context of robot control, say, is different from the process of extracting machine language instructions from programming language statements. 3 A blocks world to 'talk' about 2 Robots and artificial intelligence: parallel developments 37 Winograd's proposal centres on the idea that in the same way as one needs to curtail the grammatical rules so as to make the syntax processing tractable, one needs to curtail the 'meaning world' so as to make the semantic processing tractable.
Within this framework, Marr defined four levels of vision that are linked in terms of image understanding, but which might merit research in their own right. The first relates to the initial storage of the image. Here are the technological questions such as the number of bits associated with each picture point (pixel), the coding of this information and so on. This information has to be transformed to the second level which Marr called 'the primal sketch'. This level holds markers for important events in the original image: boundaries between different textures or intensity levels, the identification of blobs or spaces and the like.
The prefix> denotes variables being captured: the prefix < in < x is the command jor restoration oj the value ultimately captured by x. The upper case letters indicate key words oj the language In certain systems, such as MYCIN and its descendants, compatibility between the activator and the fact base is not reduced to taking only the two values: absolute incompatibility or absolute compatibility, but rather a degree of compatibility is evaluated (for example, a number between 0 and 1). When categories of facts are likely to arise, the activators can refer to each other.
Decision and Intelligence by Igor Aleksander, Henri Farreny, Malik Ghallab (auth.)