By Seyla Benhabib
Displaying a powerful command of advanced fabrics, Seyla Benhabib reconstructs the heritage of theories from a scientific viewpoint and examines the origins and changes of the idea that of critique from the works of Hegel to Habermas. via investigating the version of the philosophy of the topic, she pursues the query of ways Hegel´s opinions can assist for reforumulating the rules of serious social theory.
(The American Political technology Review )
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Additional resources for Critique, Norm, and Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory
When the citizen confronts the life of the ethical whole in the person of the officials of government alone, the purpose of the whole has then become alien to h i m . Conscience and action, law and moral intention, are potentially opposed to one another. In modern natural right theories, such a conflict is viewed as a conflict between equals: legality and morality have equal power and claim over the i n d i v i d u a l . The right of the whole, as represented by the legal sphere, is not superior to the call of conscience and of the moral law felt by the These two domains l i m i t one another; neither of them is truly "positive" or genuinely ethical (NR 470/84).
In the modern w o r l d , social life has become "positive"; the individual confronts institutions which simply face h i m like a dead husk. The inner life of the laws of the community that could only live in the spirit of its citizens have become functionless appendages which coerce individuals for ends alien to them. Hegel first suggests the theme of positivity in relation to Christianity, but eventually extends it to refer to all those institutions that are relics of a dead If something does not have a true and living ground in the present, this ground is to be searched for in the past.
And this system, as a science, forms the socalled system of political economy" This totality is a negative totality, first, because it merely sustains individualprinciple of negativity; second, because it threatens the unity of true ethical life; and third, because i t subjects individuals to a necessity, to the b l i n d necessity of economic laws. Modern natural right theories develop the legal and moral p r i n ciples upon which this sphere of economic activity is based: the instrumentalist view of public life exhibited by empiricism and the legalistic vision of Fichte, according to which the public sphere is but the interplay of the quasi-Newtonian forces of action and reaction (NR give adequate expression to this situation.
Critique, Norm, and Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory by Seyla Benhabib