By Robert W. Hefner
This paintings tells the tale of Islam and democratization in Indonesia, the world's biggest Muslim state. hard stereotypes of Islam as adversarial to democracy, this research indicates probabilities for democracy within the Muslim international and past.
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Extra resources for Civil Islam
Government programs had unwittingly contributed to the resurgence. 67 The educational expansion occurred after 1966, when regulations mandating religious instruction in all schools were enforced with a new vigor. Before Soeharto’s rise, most schools had implemented requirements for religious education casually, if at all. But by the early 1970s all elementary school students were receiving the same religious instruction from state-certiﬁed teachers. A second inﬂuence on the resurgence was that many Indonesians in these years were searching for a new ethical compass for their fast changing world.
Habermas has been criticized for overlooking the degree to which there were competing notions of public interaction in eighteenth-century Europe and other public spheres, not least of all religious. 46 Like Alexis de Tocqueville’s observations on democracy in America, however, Habermas’s analysis has the virtue of emphasizing that democratic life depends not just on government but on resources and habits in society at large. Formal democracy requires a culture and organization greater than itself.
More than is the case for Latin American evangelicals (although not unlike their North American counterparts), however, others have moved up-market into the political and philosophical debates of public intellectuals. A few others, ﬁnally, have been drawn into the netherworld of off-stage intrigue and statist violence. The long-term fate of Muslim politics everywhere depends on the balance struck between these divergent tendencies. DEMOCRATIZATION 11 A Muslim Public Sphere? 45 Habermas’s study of eighteenth-century European society emphasized that public arenas, like coffee houses, literary clubs, journals, and “moral weeklies,” helped to create an open and egalitarian culture of participation.
Civil Islam by Robert W. Hefner