Cancer - Principles And Practice Of Oncology by Devita V.T. PDF

By Devita V.T.

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The plasma membrane surface is highly specialized to interact with the environment according to the functional requirements of the individual differentiated cell. Protuberances and extensions of the plasma membrane, such as cilia, pseudopods, and villi, contain cores of specialized cytoskeletal extensions and have broad functions in locomotion and macromolecule uptake. The plasma membrane contains embedded receptors and anchor points that bind to the extracellular matrix, surrounding cells, or soluble cytokines.

As shown in Figure 1-3, the GC base pair has three hydrogen bonds, and the AT base pair has only two hydrogen bonds. Each strand can serve as the template for the synthesis of the other, enabling faithful reproduction of the genetic code. FIGURE 1-3. Base pairs are formed by hydrogen bonds. T=A; GºC. The two polynucleotide chains of the DNA double helix run in opposite directions (antiparallel). Thus, as one strand runs in the 5' to the 3' direction, the partner strand runs in the 3' to 5' direction, as in the following example: 5' P A G T C T G C C A OH 3' 3' HO T C A G A C G G T P 5' DNA can be methylated in the carbon-5 position of cytosine to form 5-methylcytosine.

Three types of genes are found in eukaryotes that are differentiated from each other by the type of RNA polymerase that transcribes the gene: RNA polymerase I, II, and III. RNA polymerase II produces heterogeneous nuclear RNA, which becomes mRNA after processing and splicing. Proteins are encoded by mRNA. In the vast majority of cases, therefore, it is the protein product of a polymerase II gene that finally determines gene activity. The genetic code that transfers nucleotide sequences into amino acid sequences is organized as triplets of nucleotides forming a codon.

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Cancer - Principles And Practice Of Oncology by Devita V.T.

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