By Rolf Luft, Hans Löw (auth.), H. Hugh Fudenberg (eds.)
The international is at the threshold of a very good new commercial revolution, a 1 scientific-industrial revolution. Recombinant DNA know-how and hybridoma expertise ("monoclonal antibodies") have already professional vided distinctive funding possibilities for enterprise capitalists. therefore released reviews of biomedical examine are not any longer limited to medical journals, yet now look on a regular basis not just in weekly information 2 magazines like Time and U. S. information & global Report,3 but additionally within the monetary sections of the hot York Times,4 The Wall highway Journal,S 6 eight enterprise Week, Fortune,7 and The Economist, in addition to in such inventory nine industry advisory guides as New matters and Inc. (The journal for turning out to be Companies). 10 those courses now seem to be as impor tant to biomedical scientists in protecting abreast of recent clinical devel opments in biotechnology as is present Contents. (The bills of healthiness price provision and of basic biomedical learn are actually additionally being by way of such media. ) Conversely, Wall highway monetary bro kers more and more now not confine their studying to monetary journals yet also are perusing Nature,ll Science,12 and technological know-how N thirteen for infor ews mation on either financial and clinical advances in those parts. it's noticeable that the knowledge explosion in biotechnology is crossing conventional obstacles (e. g. , ref. 14). This quantity is the second one of a number of which are meant to notify either the biomedical neighborhood and clever laymen of the political and monetary implications of biomedical research.
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31 In addition, as more DNA sequences associated with particular genetic diseases are cloned in bacteria, it is expected that similar types of hybridization analyses will allow definition of the patterns of inheritance more clearly and allow prenatal diagnosis of more diseases. These techniques will be particularly suitable for diseases that cannot already be diagnosed through biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid or accessible fetal blood cells. Also, this technique has detected small amounts of hepatitis B viral DNA in liver-biopsy specimens from patients with recurrent hepatitis and hepatoma.
What if and how to are terms which he (and I) believe preferable to the common designations of "basic" versus "applied" (or "targeted") research. For example, some NIH funds allocated for health-care delivery so that newer methods of health care can be made available to a greater percentage of the population are devoted to finding out how to use more effectively the knowledge already available. Funding for this type of research must be distinguished from NIH research grants awarded to scientists to support their investigations of areas which in some cases may have no immediate or apparent relevance to the health of American taxpayers.
Coli. Although it might seem impractical, perhaps even irrational, to study the viruses of bacteria when viral diseases in humans remain to be conquered, it 32 H. Hugh Fudenberg turned out that bacteriophages were useful probes for examining bacterial genes. It was discovered that certain enzymes (restriction endonucleases) can be used to locate and cut out specific genes, insert them into small DNA circles (plasmids),and seal the ends of the circle to form a new plasmid containing the inserted gene (which can be derived from any species, including man).
Biomedical Institutions, Biomedical Funding, and Public Policy by Rolf Luft, Hans Löw (auth.), H. Hugh Fudenberg (eds.)