Read e-book online Applied Heterogeneous Catalysis: Design, Manufacture, and PDF

By J. F. Le Page

ISBN-10: 2710805316

ISBN-13: 9782710805311

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Additional info for Applied Heterogeneous Catalysis: Design, Manufacture, and Use of Solid Catalysts

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The size of the platinum crystals was altered by carrying out the calcination under air of this catalyst at progressively higher temperatures, before reducing it at a f1xed 400' C. The crystal size increases with the temperature of calcination, as shown by the chemisorption of CO. , with CO chemisorption), however, the rate ofhydrogenolysis (curve 2) increases much more rapidly, this because the atoms on the metal surface are probably more active in small crystals than in large crystals. Thus the hydrogenolysis is characterized as the more demanding of the isomerization and hydrogenolysis reactions.

Consecutive reactions For consecutive reactions of the ftrst order of the type: X X A ---+ B ---+ C kM bA ks, bs where X is the reactant in common. 8) This expression permits the determination in relation to the common reactant of the rate of change of the intermediate concentration during the reaction, by means of curves established for different values of K, as shown in Fig. 9. >/ O X "CH ; [] ""� . - 'f>o/ 7 � � �CH3 �. ;/ "\;"· "'o o'". '>o � '·" �' . "· ' : ,'"• Concurrent parallel reaction me­ chanisms, demonstrated through the catalytic hydrogenation under pressure of isopropyl benzene ( 1 ), a-xylene (2) and toluene (3).

The apparent order is zero for some reactions, such as the hydrogenation of o-xylene (Fig. 4) where zero order is observed as much in relation to xylene as in relation to hydrogen. For such reactions, the rate is independent of the concentration; and the quantity transformed per unit mass of catalyst depends only on time, or for unit time on the catalyst mass. This quantity transformed is independent of the type of reactor used, whether it be a reactor with homogeneous or graduated concentrations functioning either statically or dynamically.

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Applied Heterogeneous Catalysis: Design, Manufacture, and Use of Solid Catalysts by J. F. Le Page

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