Download e-book for iPad: Analytical modelling of structural systems : an entirely new by Iain Alasdair MacLeod

By Iain Alasdair MacLeod

ISBN-10: 0130352543

ISBN-13: 9780130352545

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Additional info for Analytical modelling of structural systems : an entirely new approach with emphasis on behaviour of building structures

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The survey must be closed onto a point of known elevation so that the accuracy and acceptability of the survey can be determined. If the closure is not within allowable limits, the survey must be repeated. The arithmetic can be verified by performing the arithmetic check (page check). All BSs are added, and all FSs are subtracted. 15). 14). Chap. 2 Leveling Starting elevation + ©BS - ©FS = ending elevation In the 1800s and early 1900s, leveling procedures like the one described here were used to survey locations for railroads that traversed North America between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

26. 25 tube axis. Sec. 26 Peg test. 00015 m/m. 00015 m/m. 7, you were advised to keep the BS and FS distances equal; the peg test illustrates clearly the benefits to be gained from the use of this technique. If the BS and FS distances are kept roughly equal, errors due to a faulty line of sight simply do not have the opportunity to develop. 10). 172. 48 Chap. 002m). 009 for 60 m), the effect on the survey is negligible for ordinary work. 27). Each BS and FS is recorded by reading the stadia hairs in addition to the horizontal cross hair.

If notes are copied, they must be clearly labeled as such so that they are not thought to be field notes. 16 Chap. 1 Surveying Fundamentals 11. Lettering on sketches is to be read from the bottom of the page or from the right side; any other position is upside down. 12. Note keepers verify all given data by repeating the data aloud as they enter the data in their notes; the surveyor who originally gave the data to the note keeper listens and responds to the verification callout. 13. If the data on an entire page are to be voided, the word VOID, together with a diagonal line, is placed on the page.

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Analytical modelling of structural systems : an entirely new approach with emphasis on behaviour of building structures by Iain Alasdair MacLeod

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