By James K. Hoffmeier
Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is likely one of the so much interesting rulers of historical Egypt. His ordinary visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the solar disc Aten have inspired educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the various books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions about Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James okay. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten was once no longer, as is frequently stated, an intensive advocating a brand new faith yet fairly a primitivist: that's, one that reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's suggestion was once the previous state (2650-2400 B.C.E.), whilst the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unmatched head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier unearths that Akhenaten was once a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only author God, according to the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine stumble upon that introduced his monotheistic non secular odyssey.
The booklet additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable dating to Israel's faith, supplying an in depth comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out through students as stimulated through the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious studying of key texts, works of art, and archaeological reports, Hoffmeier offers compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the impression of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.
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Extra info for Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism
IV, 357. 6. 82 Measurements from Dieter Arnold, Building in Egypt: Pharaonic Stone Masonry (New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), 60. 83 Urk. IV, 357. 7. wy, two pillars. 196–197. 85 Urk. 13–16. 86 Gardiner, Grammar, 495 (sign N 28). 87 Wb 1, 448. 9 Hatshepsut’s standing obelisk (Karnak Temple). Photo James K. Hoffmeier. normally written with . But here the word indicator is . This sign shows a heron on a perch, which is a variation of the standing heron . 88 The orthography of the word on Hatshepsut’s obelisks is written just with .
He was acquainted with the works of Montu” . . ”31 In all, Montu’s name occurs six times on that stela. Montu, then, enjoyed a rapid rise in power in Thebes with the 11th Dynasty rulers, but was soon eclipsed in the 12th Dynasty, when a new royal family followed who instigated the ascendancy of another Theban deity, namely, Amun. Although Montu’s prominence waned, in later times he continued to play an important role in military matters, as already noted. Howard Carter & Percy Newberry, The Tomb of Thoutmôsis IV (London: Archibald Constable, 1904), pl.
101 Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature II, 42. 11 Sphinx Stela Amenhotep II (Giza). Photo James K. Hoffmeier. 12). ”105 For the text, see Urk. IV, 1539–1544. For translation, see Barbara Cumming, Egyptian Historical Records of the Later Eighteenth Dynasty (Westminster: Aris & Phillips, 1984), 247–251. 103 Urk. 17. 104 Urk. 7, 19. 105 Urk. 7. 12 Sphinx Stela of Thutmose IV (Giza). Photo James K. Hoffmeier. These two 18th Dynasty stelae clearly associate the sphinx with his various solar forms.
Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism by James K. Hoffmeier